Help your students understand the basic facts of multiplication by introducing the concept of object groups and showing them how to transform simple word problems into mathematical sentences.

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**Lesson Objective:**The lesson is aligned to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics:**3.OA.1 Operations and Algebraic Thinking**– Interpret products of whole numbers.**Materials Required:**pictures of giraffes, tricycles, tables with 4 legs, and peg boards and pegs - slide 2 of 3
### Lesson Procedure

**Giraffes and Legs**Show students pictures of giraffes, and note that each giraffe has four legs. Lead a discussion on how to associate the number of giraffes and legs to groups and objects in that group. For instance, 1 giraffe with 4 legs can be thought of as 1 group with 4 objects in that group. Likewise, 5 giraffes with 4 legs on each giraffe can be thought of as 5 groups with 4 objects in each group. Explain that 5 groups with 4 objects in each group can be written as 5 x 4.

Here are some questions to ask the class during the discussion:

1. How many legs are there on 1 giraffe?

*(Answer: 4 legs)*2. How many legs are there on 5 giraffes?

*(Answer: 20 legs)*3. What number sentence represents 5 groups with 4 objects in each group?

*(Answer: 5 x 4 = 20.)***Tricycles and Wheels**Using the same process as above, discuss the following questions with your class.

1. How many wheels are there on 1 tricycle?

*(Answer: 3 wheels)*2. How many wheels are there on 6 tricycles?

*(Answer: 18 wheels)*3. What is the equation that represents 6 groups with 3 objects in each group?

*(Answer: 6 x 3 = 18.)* - slide 3 of 3
### Individual or Group Work

You can continue the discussion with the examples listed below, or use these problems as exercises for students to work on individually or in groups.

**Tables and Legs**– Show a picture of a table with 4 legs.1. How many legs are there on 1 table?

2. How many legs are there on 7 tables?

3. What is the equation that represents 7 groups with 4 objects in each group?

**Peg Boards and Pegs**– Identify 2 rows on a peg board. Place 6 pegs in each row.4. How many pegs are there in 1 row?

5. How many pegs are there in 2 rows?

6. What is the equation that represents 2 groups with 6 objects in each group?

**Solve the problems below. Write the equation that can be used to solve each problem.**Each giraffe has 4 legs.

7. How many legs are on 3 giraffes?

8. How many legs are on 8 giraffes?

9. How many legs are on 6 giraffes?

Each tricycle has 3 wheels.

10. How many wheels are on 2 tricycles?

11. How many wheels are on 5 tricycles?

12. How many wheels are on 3 tricycles?

Each spider has 8 legs.

13. How many legs are on 5 spiders?

14. How many legs are on 6 spiders?

15. How many legs are on 7 spiders?

Each group has 5 objects.

16. How many objects are in 1 group?

17. How many objects are in 5 groups?

18. How many objects are in 7 groups?

19. How many objects are in 2 groups?

20. How many objects are in 6 groups?

**Answers:**1. 4 legs

2. 28 legs

3. 7 x 4 = 28

4. 6 pegs

5. 12 pegs

6. 2 x 6 = 12

7. 12 legs, 3 x 4 = 12

8. 32 legs, 8 x 4 = 32

9. 24 legs, 6 x 4 = 24

10. 6 wheels, 2 x 3 = 6

11. 15 wheels, 5 x 3 = 15

12. 9 wheels, 3 x 3 = 9

13. 40 legs, 5 x 8 = 40

14. 48 legs, 8 x 6 = 48

15. 56 legs, 8 x 7 = 56

16. 5 objects, 1 x 5 = 5

17. 25 objects, 5 x 5 = 25

18. 35 objects, 7 x 5 = 35

19. 10 objects, 2 x 5 = 10

20. 30 objects, 6 x 5 = 30

**Goal:**Students should be able to determine the product (no greater than 100) of two whole numbers.