Parts of Speech
We have already learned that there are eight parts of speech in Hindi. These parts of speech correspond with those in the English language. Nouns in Hindi are known as sangya (संज्ञा) and perform the same job as nouns in English. They are names for people, places, things and even ideas. The meanings of the Hindi words and sentences are given in parentheses following a specific word or sentence immediately. The words are shown using Hindi script also. Examples:
- dilli bharat ki rajdhani hai. दिल्ली भारत की राजधानी है। ( Delhi is the capital of India.)
- mujhe ganit padna aacha lagta hai. मुझे गणित पड़ना अच्छा लगता है। (I like to study mathematics.)
dilli (Delhi), bharat (India) and ganit (Mathematics) are examples of nouns.
Types of Nouns
Just as in English, there are five types of nouns in Hindi. These are discussed in detail below:
1. vyaktivachak sangya- व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा (Proper Noun):
These nouns refer to something particular. In Hindi, the concept of capitalization of the first letter of a sentence or a proper noun is not observed. Some examples of proper nouns: bharat ek bahut hi sundar desh hai.
- hum log goa ja rahe hai. हम लोग गोआ जा रहे है। ( We are going to Goa.)
- shivaji ek bahut hi bahadur raja the. शिवाजी एक बहुत बहादुर राजा थे । ( Shivaji was a very brave king. )
Goa and Shivaji are proper nouns.
2. jativachak sangya – जातिवाचक संज्ञा(Common Noun)
Common Nouns are common words used to describe similar items or a class of things. For example, a person who studies is a student, a person who practices medicine as a profession is a doctor. Student and doctor are common nouns. Some examples of common nouns are:
- kitabein aadmi ki sabse achi dost hoti hai. किताबें आदमी की सबसे अच्छी दोस्तहोती हैं। ( Books are a man's best friend.)
- ladkiyan bahar khel rahi hai.लड़कीयां बाहर खेल रही है । (The girls are playing outside.)
kitabein (books) , aadmi (man), dost (friend) and ladkiyan (girls), are examples of common nouns in the above sentences.
3. bhavvachak sangya – भाववाचक संज्ञा (Abstract Noun)
These refer to things which cannot be touched. These nouns refer to nontangible things. satyaसत्या (truth), bahaduriबहादुरी(bravery), khushiखुशी (happiness) all are examples of bhavvachak sangya. Some more examples of abstract nouns in Hindi are:
- bachpan ek bahut hi khoobsurat samay hai. बचपन एक बहुत ही खुबसुरत समय है । (Childhood is a beautiful period)
- sada sach bolo. सदा सच बोलो । (Always speak the truth.)
bachpan (childhood), samay (period) and sach (truth) are abstract nouns in the above examples.
4. samudaayvachak sangya – समुदायवाचक संज्ञा (Collective Nouns)
Names to given to a collection of persons or things are known as samudaayvachak sangya. These words are used to refer to the whole group as one. sena सेना (army), sabha सभा (assembly), mandali (group), parivaar परिवार (family) are examples of collective nouns in Hindi. Some more examples are:
- mera chabiyon ka gucha nahi mil raha. मेरा चाबीयों का गुच्छा नहीं मिल रहा । (I cannot locate my bunch of keys. )
- sena nadi kinare ke paas paunch gayi hai. सेना नदी के पास पहुच गयी है । (The army has reached the river banks.)
chabiyon ka gucha (bunch of keys), sena (army) are examples of collective nouns.
5. dravyavachak sangya – द्रव्यवाचक संज्ञा (Material Noun) These nouns depict constituents of material of the material itself. Some examples of this category of nouns are: sona सोना( gold), lakdi लकडी़ (wood), ghee घी ( clarified butter) are examples of material nouns. Sentences using material nouns in Hindi are:
- lakdi ki kursia majboot hoti hai. लकडी़ की कुर्सी मज़बुत होती है । (Chairs made of wood are sturdy. )
- yeh kaante sone ke baney hai. यह कांटे सोने के बने है। (These earrings are made of gold.)
Genders are known as ling लिंग in Hindi. There are only two genders in Hindi:
- Pulling पुल्लिंग (Masculine Gender )
- Striling स्त्रीलिंग (Feminine Gender)
Some examples of genders are: The feminine gender of ladka लड़का (boy) in Hindi language is ladkiलड़की (girl); the feminine gender of pita पिता (father) is mata माता (mother) and of lekhak लेखक (author) is lekhika लेखिका (authoress).
Numbers in Nouns
Numbers are known as vachan वचन in Hindi. There are two types of numbers:
- Ek-vachan एक वचन (Singular Number)
- Bahu-vachan बहु वचन (Plural Number)
Examples illustrating numbers in Hindi are: The word ladka लड़का (boy) is singular in number and the plural is ladke लड़के (boys); ladkiलड़की (girl) is singular in number and the plural is ladkiyan लड़कीयां (girls); kitabकिताब (book) is singular in number and kitabein किताबें (books) is plural in number.
Try doing the exercise given below, it will help revise the different types of nouns in Hindi.
Identify the sangya (nouns) in the following sentences:
- hathi paani pe raha hai.( ) (The elephant is drinking water.)
- ladke bageche main khel rahe hai. ( ) (The boys are playing in the garden.)
- reena school ja rahi hai.( ) (Reena is going to school.)
- chandi ek kimti dhatu hai. ( ) (Silver is an expensive metal.)
- mohan ek bahadur ladka hai. ( ) (Mohan is a brave boy.)
- jungle mein bahut saare ped hai. ( ) (There are many trees in the jungle.)
- bhuk aadmi se kuch bhi karva sakti hai. ( ) (Hunger can make a man do anything.)
- sundarta dekhne vale ki nazar mein hoti hai. ( ) (Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder. )
- hathi (elephant), paani (water)
- ladke (boys), bagheche (garden)
- reena, school
- chandi (silver), dhatu (metal)
- mohan , ladka (boy)
- jungle , ped (tree)
- bhuk (hunger), aadmi (man)
- sundarta (beauty), nazar (eye)
- Sachitra Hindi Vyakran (सचित्रहिन्दीव्याकर) and Manak Vyavharik Hindi Vyakran Tha Rachna (मानकव्यवहारिकहिन्दीव्याकरतथारचना)