Types of Nouns
Just as in English, there are five types of nouns in Hindi. These are discussed in detail below:
1. vyaktivachak sangya- व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा (Proper Noun):
These nouns refer to something particular. In Hindi, the concept of capitalization of the first letter of a sentence or a proper noun is not observed. Some examples of proper nouns: bharat ek bahut hi sundar desh hai.
hum log goa ja rahe hai. हम लोग गोआ जा रहे है। ( We are going to Goa.)
shivaji ek bahut hi bahadur raja the. शिवाजी एक बहुत बहादुर राजा थे । ( Shivaji was a very brave king. )
Goa and Shivaji are proper nouns.
2. jativachak sangya - जातिवाचक संज्ञा(Common Noun)
Common Nouns are common words used to describe similar items or a class of things. For example, a person who studies is a student, a person who practices medicine as a profession is a doctor. Student and doctor are common nouns. Some examples of common nouns are:
- kitabein aadmi ki sabse achi dost hoti hai. किताबें आदमी की सबसे अच्छी दोस्तहोती हैं। ( Books are a man's best friend.)
- ladkiyan bahar khel rahi hai.लड़कीयां बाहर खेल रही है । (The girls are playing outside.)
kitabein (books) , aadmi (man), dost (friend) and ladkiyan (girls), are examples of common nouns in the above sentences.
3. bhavvachak sangya - भाववाचक संज्ञा (Abstract Noun)
These refer to things which cannot be touched. These nouns refer to nontangible things. satyaसत्या (truth), bahaduriबहादुरी(bravery), khushiखुशी (happiness) all are examples of bhavvachak sangya. Some more examples of abstract nouns in Hindi are:
- bachpan ek bahut hi khoobsurat samay hai. बचपन एक बहुत ही खुबसुरत समय है । (Childhood is a beautiful period)
- sada sach bolo. सदा सच बोलो । (Always speak the truth.)
bachpan (childhood), samay (period) and sach (truth) are abstract nouns in the above examples.
4. samudaayvachak sangya - समुदायवाचक संज्ञा (Collective Nouns)
Names to given to a collection of persons or things are known as samudaayvachak sangya. These words are used to refer to the whole group as one. sena सेना (army), sabha सभा (assembly), mandali (group), parivaar परिवार (family) are examples of collective nouns in Hindi. Some more examples are:
- mera chabiyon ka gucha nahi mil raha. मेरा चाबीयों का गुच्छा नहीं मिल रहा । (I cannot locate my bunch of keys. )
- sena nadi kinare ke paas paunch gayi hai. सेना नदी के पास पहुच गयी है । (The army has reached the river banks.)
chabiyon ka gucha (bunch of keys), sena (army) are examples of collective nouns.
5. dravyavachak sangya - द्रव्यवाचक संज्ञा (Material Noun) These nouns depict constituents of material of the material itself. Some examples of this category of nouns are: sona सोना( gold), lakdi लकडी़ (wood), ghee घी ( clarified butter) are examples of material nouns. Sentences using material nouns in Hindi are:
- lakdi ki kursia majboot hoti hai. लकडी़ की कुर्सी मज़बुत होती है । (Chairs made of wood are sturdy. )
- yeh kaante sone ke baney hai. यह कांटे सोने के बने है। (These earrings are made of gold.)