English Word Formation
The vocabulary of the English language consists of a complex mix of Germanic and Romantic roots and affixes, which can make English an especially difficult language to master. When unfamiliar words get in the way of comprehension, the first inclination of many students is to reach for a dictionary. However, students can learn another strategy to help figure out the meanings of difficult and unfamiliar words without continually interrupting the flow of reading.
The strategy is as simple as learning the meanings of the most common prefixes, roots, and suffixes in the English language. Here is the way in such a learning works:
- Example #1: A student may not know the meaning of the word omnipotent, but knowing that the prefix omni means "all, everywhere" can allow the student to guess that omnipotent might mean "all powerful." What about omnipresent? Yes, "all present, present everywhere."
- Example #2: The prefix un means "not," so words such as unhappy and unloved mean the opposite of happy and loved: "not happy" and "not loved."
Other very common prefixes that students of the English language might want to start learning include the following:
- Prefix – Meaning – Example
- bi, bis – two – bisect, bipolar
- circum – around – circumspect
- ex, e – from – exit, exhume
- inter – between, among – interject
- mal, male – bad, evil – malpractice
- non – not – compliant
- pro – forward – promote
- sub – under – submarine
- trans – across – transcend
English Root Words
Learning common prefixes is only the beginning. By memorizing common root words and suffixes, English students will be armed with the tools needed to piece together an ever-expanding arsenal of words. Following are some examples of very common root words and suffixes:
- Root – Meaning – Example
- cred – believe – credible
- duc, duct – lead – conduct
- graph – write – autograph
- mort – death – mortuary
- scrib, script – write – subscription
- therm – heat – thermostat
And, lastly, here are some common word suffixes to help figure out difficult words:
- Suffix – Meaning – Example
- able, ible – able to – salvageable
- ism – the practice of – patriotism
- ist – one who is occupied with – dentist
- less – not having, lacking – hairless
- ship – the art or skill of – friendship
- tude – the state of – attitude
Figuring out the meanings of difficult words in the English language becomes a little easier with the knowledge of the most common prefixes, roots, and suffixes.
For more articles on affixes in English, please refer to:
- Deriving Nouns from Verbs: Names for People
- Enhancing Vocabulary: Manias and Phobias
For a printable list of additional prefixes and suffixes in English, please download the supplemental English Affixes: Prefixes and Suffixes.