What are Specific Learning Disabilities?
According to the U.S. Department of Education, school attendance is compulsory and all children must attend public or private schools, or receive approved home school instruction. Children with specific learning disabilities also have the right to a free appropriate public education (FAPE) equivalent to the opportunity enjoyed by their peers with typical learning capacities. While reading and language learning disabilities are the most common, other specific learning disabilities exist.
Definition of Learning Disabilities
A learning disability has a neurological basis in which a child essentially experiences a “disconnect" signal when he or she tries to process incoming data. This causes the child to experience difficulty in comprehension and in accurately reading, calculating math, processing language, or organizing information as he or she receives it. LD Online reported the National Institute of Health figures that as many as one out of seven individuals, or fifteen percent, suffer from some type of specific learning disability.
Specific Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities encompass reading, language, math, and processing skills. Some of the most common specific learning disabilities, courtesy of LD Online, include the following:
Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders – difficulty processing language (even though individual has normal hearing and vision).
Dycalculia – difficulty understanding math concepts and performing math calculations.
Dysgraphia – difficulty forming letters properly within a defined space.
Dyslexia – difficulty understanding written words; also known as a language or reading disability/disorder.
Non-verbal Learning Disabilities – difficulty comprehending and differentiating non-verbal cues— basically anything that is not written or spoken—such as facial expressions, gestures, and body language; also struggle with organizational skills and memory recall.