It's all well and good to read about differentiated instruction and how beneficial it can be for your students. What you do with that knowledge is the important thing. Here are some examples of what differentiated instruction actually looks like, using a variety of subject areas for the activities in the classroom.
For math classes, manipulatives are easy to come by. Food is a great way for students to learn, because after the activity they get to eat their work. For example, if teaching probability, give each student a bag of candy and have them answer questions based on their candy (such as, "What is the probability of pulling a red candy out of the bag?"). Educational supply stores also have a lot of great manipulatives. For younger students, small figures or toys can be used for activities involving sorting, counting and grouping. A visual element in the math class involves using the board to work out problems or using an overhead projector. For an auditory example, speak the problems out loud or teach students a small rhyme to help them remember mathematic formulas or principles.
For science classes, hands-on learning is the name of the game. Lab activities encourage exploration and tactile stimulation for students who are kinesthetic or active learners. Visual learners can benefit from activities including models and diagrams, while auditory learners might enjoy listening to a podcast on a recent topic in the world of science such as genome research or space exploration.
Social studies classes can be a little bit more difficult. However, this is where project-based learning comes into play. Encourage students to work in cooperative groups to compose a short video about a period of time in history. Visual learners can create the sets for the presentation, auditory learners can put together sound effects and tactile learners can choreograph the scene. Every student can participate in the research and explanation of the project while at the same time letting their individual talents shine. Bringing in historical artifacts is another way to engage student learners; take them on a virtual tour of an archaeological dig or have a field trip to a re-enactment of a historical event.
As for the English classes, much of the learning needs to be done either visually or by hearing, that is just how the curriculum is structured. However, extension activities can be done to provide the hands-on experience. Instead of a traditional book report, let students choose the way they will present information they learned from reading. Some students might create a character journal while others might shoot a video or record a podcast. Some might like to make a multimedia presentation while others would prefer to compose a traditional essay. Use a rubric to grade the assignments based on the information they contain and the quality of the presentation regardless of the format used.
In non-traditional subjects like physical education or art, most of the lessons will be differentiated as compared to the regular classroom. However, in these classes incorporating some more traditional material, such as writing assignments, is a way to differentiate for students who are not as comfortable with hands-on learning.