Let's start with an important verb... "decir" (to say, to tell). So this verb means "to say, or to tell". For example: "Mi hermano dice que está en la casa". (My brother says he's at home). Now in the context of today's lesson, we're looking at the verb "decir" in a slightly different light. Imagine you're in a hotel in Spain and the phone in your room rings. You have to answer it, but HOW do you answer? You just say "¿Diga?". And if you were wondering, no, you're not actually saying 'You, talk to me now!" in the imperative. This is just the standard way of saying hello on the phone.
Another way to greet someone on the phone is to say "¿álo?". This is pronounced almost the same as in English when we say "hello?", but note the accent on the "a" sound.
The person making the phone call will need to make themselves known. You can say "Hola, soy -name-" (Hello, it's -name-). Then you will need to ask for the person you want to speak to. The phrase for this is "¿Se encuentra -name-?" (Is -name- available?). From here, the conversation can go in any direction.
Now our next word is the feminine noun "novedad" (novelty). When you greet some you know on the phone, it's customary to ask what's new. One good way to do this is with the word "novedad". Here, the word is used in the plural, "¿qué novedades hay?", literally, "what novelties are there"; but in reality, this means "what's new?"
Once you have spoken with the person on the other end of the line, you will have to wrap the conversation up. There are a few phrases that you can use to end a phone conversation.
First, you can say "Bueno, me tengo que ir" (Well, I have to go). This lets the other person know it is time to finish talking.
The response to this could be "¡OK, hablamos!" ... (OK, let's talk soon!). This phrase is more suitable for informal conversations, as it assumes a certain degree of intimacy. If you are ending a more formal conversation then you could say "Muy bien, estaremos en contacto, adiós" (Very well, we will be in touch, goodbye).