How do the simple tenses of a given verb relate to its compound tenses? To illustrate this, let's do a quick synopsis of an easy verb: comer. Let's use the tú form.
Note that comes means you eat. The simple verb is conjugated to agree with the subject -- tú. In order to form the present perfect tense, which means you have eaten, you must conjugate the verb haber, not comer, in the simple present tense, to agree with the subject: has. Next, the verb comer is put (not conjugated) in its participial form: comido, thus we have: has comido. What this tells us is that the present perfect of any verb is based on the simple present of haber compounded with the past participle of that verb.
The past perfect, or pluperfect, likewise is formed by conjugating the verb haber in the imperfect (habías -- to continue using the tú form as a model): habías comido, which means you had eaten. In Spanish, the preterite anterior, using the preterite of haber plus the past participle, is not used much in speech -- and it means the same thing as the perfect tense using the imperfect of haber: hubiste comido = you had eaten.
The other perfect tenses also maintain this same relationship with their corresponding simple tenses. Thus, the simple conditional, you would eat (comerías) is related to the conditional perfect, habrías comido (you would have eaten). Likewise, the simple future, you will eat, corresponds to the future perfect, you will have eaten.