Enculturation can either refer to formal learning, such as in a traditional education system, or informal learning, such as the social feedback you receive from your parents and friends as a developing child and beyond. Both are critical to the process and blend in unique ways to create different personalities.
Our entire lives may be viewed as an enculturation process as we constantly learn more about the changing culture surrounding us, adding depth and breadth to our knowledge. Other cultures enculturate children differently, obviously, but the broad strokes tend to be the same.
With regard to language, the mechanisms by which one is enculturated include both formal and informal learning. Oral and listening skills are initially learning from the cradle, often imparted by the parents and other close family members, in a deeply informal process. In many cultures, a formal education process will teach reading and writing skills.
After the initial child training phase, you continue to be enculturated in your language throughout your life. For instance, you are constantly learning new slang terms as the language changes gradually over time through informal social contacts. If you continue your formal education into college or beyond, or take a career branch that demands skill with the language, you continue to finesse your use.
Also, enculturation can be either conscious or unconscious on the part of the learner. For instance, the individual may be consciously actively attempting to understand what people are saying, but they may also be unconsciously absorbing new vocabulary words and slang from the conversations that occur around them.