Written Language Symbols - "Alphabets"
With some languages, the sounds are represented by abstract characters in a form called "alphabet" -- named after the Greek "alpha" and "beta". These characters are assembled in specified ways to form words (called "spelling") and then these words are assembled in a certain way to form coherent sentences in that language (called “syntax" or "grammar"). Latin and Greek form a basis for many European (“Western") languages--and a common recognizable vocabulary, alphabet, and many mathematical symbols are based on those of ancient Greek and Latin .
As Latin and Greek were spreading their influence across the known world, other cultures had established their own written systems that did not use similar alphabetic representation for their languages. Languages such as Hebrew, Arabic, and Hindi used individual characters to represent sounds in a similar manner as the Latin and Greek characters. But they wrote their characters from the right to the left, rather from left to right.
The Egyptians and Chinese, however, used hieroglyphics and calligraphy that were originally drawings of animals and other items. With Egyptian, each pictorial hieroglyphic character represents sounds in much the same way an alphabetic character does for Latin, Greek, Hindi, Arabic, or Hebrew. You can assemble Egyptian hieroglyphics to form words--that if sounded out would be understandable as the Egyptian spoken language. Eventually, the Egyptian hieroglyphics lost their original “picture" meaning and became characters that represent sounds as part of the spoken Egyptian language.