Complexity of Flagella
Now that we have several flagella completed, we need to know how the flagella in prokaryotes operate. If you recall, the basal end of a flagellum is the flagellum's form of locomotion. Basically, the flagellum "beats" its basal end in a rotary movement. In one sense, the basal end can almost be thought of as a motor boat's propeller which allows the boat to move in the water.
According to Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes in Biology, the bacteria species Spirillum serpens flagella has been clocked at over 2,400 rpm! Just as a motor boat needs fuel to power its engine, flagella is often thought of being powered by chemiosomotic power.
So are flagella constantly moving? In a sense, no. Certain flagella types move by "runs" in that they beat once per second. Think of a person in a rowboat using their paddles against their paddles in one motion. Just as a row boat can glide across the water with one push of the paddles, so too can the prokaryote's flagella propel the cell across a medium.
Other flagella types also use "runs;" however, they change direction through "tumbles" in which the flagella start in a new direction. An interesting aspect of "tumbling" is that when the flagella rotate counterclockwise they are in "runs" while when the flagella rotate clockwise they "tumble" and allow the cell to move in a different direction.
The flagella of prokaryotes are one of the most complex parts in a cell. These tiny locomotion motors allow the cell to move and with a diameter of 12-18 nanometers, flagella can arguably be thought of as one of the most complex and smallest engineering marvels of our world today.
It's amazing to think that something so small can allow the cell to move and even compete without own transportation methods.