Time period: Roman efforts to conquer Spain began around 200 B.C. at the end of the Punic Wars. Complete Roman control over the territory was not complete until the reign of Rome's first Emperor, Augustus. Spain remained until Roman control until about 409 A.D. when Germanic tribes invaded the region.
Territory: The Roman province of Hispania covered most of modern-day Spain and Portugal. During the early Roman era, the territory was divided into two provinces Hispania Citerior (i.e. Near Spain) and Hispania Ulterior (i.e. Far Spain). In the Imperial Roman period, Roman Spain was reorganized into three provinces: Baetica, Lusitania, and Tarraconensis.
Noteworthy leaders: Two Roman Emperors were born in Roman Spain: Trajan (reigned 98 AD to 117 AD) and Hadrian (reigned 117 AD to 138 AD).
Time period: 711-1492 A.D. The Islamic period of Spanish history is often further divided into several periods. Many scholars point to the 10th century A.D. as the height of Islamic Spain. In some sources, Islamic Spain is also called Moorish Spain.
Territory: By 720 A.D., Islamic Spain includes most of modern-day Portugal and Spain.
Religious toleration: Unlike later periods of Spanish history, the Islamic government of the territory was widely known for its toleration of Jews and Christians. The peaceful coexistence of several religious groups in a single territory in this era stands in marked contrast to later periods of Spanish history. While this period's religious toleration was not up to 21st century human rights standards, it was progressive for its time.
The Culture of Cordoba: One of the most culturally significant centers of Islamic Spain was Cordoba, capital city of Umayyad Spain. The region was known for its libraries, hundreds of public baths and other amenities for residents. The scholars and intellectuals based in Cordoba are sometimes credited with bringing knowledge of ancient Greece back to Europe.