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In many English words, you will come across some letters that are spelled yet not pronounced. These unpronounced but visible letters are known as silent letters. They occur a lot in the English language and usually make life difficult for the new learner. Why do we need to have such letters in a word in the first place? That's a good question, and one that isn't going to be explored here. Right now, we will take only a cursory look at which letters in words are to remain mute and at some silent letter rules that will help us recognize when certain letters are to be silent. To get a good grounding in silent letters apart from knowing the rules, it will help to read extensively in English.
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Let's take a look at some rules for silent letters:
1. The letter B is usually silent when used after the letter M and also before the letter T.
- Examples before M: Jamb, Lamb, Comb, Tomb
- Examples before T: Subtle, Doubt
2. The letter C is silent when used before the letter Z and sometimes when used before the letter L, the letter K, and the letter S.
- Examples before Z: Tzar, Czarina, Czechoslovakia
- Example before L: Muscle
- Examples before K: Block, Puck
- Example before S: Scythe.
3. The letter D is silent when it appears before the letter N and then also before the letter G.
- Example before N: Wednesday
- Example before G: Cadge
4. Let's look at the letter E.
If E happens to be at the end of a word, it is generally not pronounced.
- Examples: Able, Challenge, Bible
If E happens to occur right before the letter D in simple past tense or past participle forms of verbs, E may sometimes not be pronounced.
- Examples: Smuggled, Dragged, Chained
5. The letter G is silent when it is used before the letters M, N and L.
- Examples before N: Deign, Reign
- Example before M: Diaphragm
- Example before L: Intaglio
6. The letter H is often silent when it precedes the letters E and O, and when it follows the letters G, R and T.
- Examples before A, E, I and O: Hallelujah, Honest, Historical
- Examples after G: Ghost, Ghirken
- Example after R: Myrrh
- Example after T: Isthmus
7. The letter K is always silent when it precedes the letter N.
- Examples: Know, Knock, Knife, Knight
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Teaching Silent Letters
Explain what silent letters are and the rules to the students. Provide students with a list and examples of rules for silent letters.
Have the students compile a vocabulary list of silent letter words.
Have the students read through a text and make a note of the silent letter words that they find in it.
Have the students play word games; for example, filling in the silent letters in a written word or guessing which is the silent letter in a spoken word.
Memorizing words is a good idea, but reading a lot is even better. The more the students read, the more familiar they'll become with the concept of silent letter rules and the more adept they'll become at using the language.
- BBC Skillswise - Silent Letters - http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/spelling/soundandspell/silentletters/
- UsingEnglish - Silent Letters Quiz - http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/72.html