Plot: The plot of a work of prose is its main storyline. It includes the important events of the story, and provides a structure for beginning, middle, and end. For example, a basic romantic plot might be: boy meets girl, boy and girl start to like each other, something happens to make them angry with each other, and finally they resolve their problems and live happily ever after.
Exposition: This is the introduction of a story, which can be of any length. It sets up the plot and gives the important information you need before you can understand the rest of the narrative. In general, the exposition will explain what the main characters, setting, and background of the story are, and will set the mood and tone.
Conflict: This is the main struggle or problem in the story. It might be a clash between two characters, good and evil, a person and their society, society and nature, etc. Or it could be an internal conflict, such as a child who doesn't want to grow up or someone struggling with depression or an eating disorder.
Climax: The climax is the high point of the story, generally the part where the emotions are strongest and the danger is greatest. This might be when the hero confronts the villain, where the boy and girl reveal their feelings for each other, or when the detective finally finds the last clue she needs to solve the mystery.
Resolution/Denouement: This is the end of the story, including everything after the climax. It deals with the aftermath of the climax, wraps up any final questions or secondary storylines, and brings the plot to its conclusion.